**General Syntax**

In the following sections, a separate syntax line is included for each database or list function that doesn't conform to the following general syntax:

=

*Dfunction*(*database*,*field*,*criteria*)
· The

*argument refers to the range encompassing the list or database.*__database__
· The

*argument refers to a particular column in the list. If you omit the*__field__*argument, the function operates on the entire list. You can refer to the column number within the list, the name of the column heading (in quotes), or a cell reference referring to either the label or the column number.*__field__
· The

*argument specifies the basis on which you want the function to select particular cells. The criteria includes a duplicate list of column headings from the list, with words, phrases, numeric values, or formulas listed underneath those headings.*__criteria__**DAVERAGE**

Indicates the average of the values that meet the specified criteria.

**DCOUNT**

Counts the number of cells that contain numbers that meet the specified criteria.

**DCOUNTA**

Counts nonblank cells containing numbers or text that meet the specified criteria.

**DGET**

Returns a single value that meets the specified criteria. If duplicates are found, DGET returns #NUM.

**DMAX**

Extracts the highest value that meets the specified criteria.

**DMIN**

Extracts the lowest value that meets the specified criteria.

**DPRODUCT**

Returns the product of multiplying the values that meet the specified criteria.

**DSTDEV**

Returns the calculation of the standard deviation of a population, based on the sum of the whole population.

**DSUM**

Returns the total of the values that meet the specified criteria.

**DVAR**

Estimates the variance of a sample population, based on the values that meet the specified criteria.

**DVARP**

Returns the calculation of the variance of an entire population, based on the values that meet the specified criteria.

**GETPIVOTDATA**

Returns a value of data stored in a PivotTable. The syntax is as follows:

=GETPIVOTDATA(

*PivotTable*,*name*)**Date and Time Functions**

DATE

DATE

Returns the DATEVALUE serial number.

=DATE(

*year*,*month*,*day*)**DATEVALUE**

Converts date text to a DATEVALUE serial number.

=DATEVALUE(

*date_text*)**DAY**

Returns the corresponding day of the month serial number, from 1 to 31.

=DAY(

*serial_number*)**DAYS360**

Returns the number of days between dates that you specify, based on a 360-day year (twelve 30 day months).

=DAYS360(

*start_date*,*end_date*)**EDATE**

Returns the value or serial number of the date specified by you and the number of months before or after the specified date. Use EDATE to calculate the maturity date or date due that falls on the same day of the month as the date of issue.

=EDATE(

*start_date*,*months*)**EOMONTH**

Returns the serial number for the last day of the month (as specified by

*) before or after*__months__*. Used to calculate maturity dates or dates due that fall on the last day of the month.*__start_date__
=EOMonth(

*start_date*,*months*)**HOUR**

Returns the hour as a serial number integer between 0 (12:00 A.M.) and 23 (11:00 P.M.).

=HOUR(

*serial_number*)**MINUTE**

Returns the serial number integer from 0 to 59 that corresponds to the minute.

=MINUTE(

*serial_number*)**MONTH**

Returns the corresponding serial number of the month between 1 and 12.

=MONTH(

*serial_number*)**NETWORKDAYS**

Returns the number of working days between two dates. Excludes weekends and specified holidays.

=NETWORKDAYS(

*start_date*,*end_date*,*holidays*)**NOW**

Returns the current date and time in the form of a serial number. When entered in a cell, Excel formats the number as a date and time. There are no arguments for this function.

=NOW()

**SECOND**

Returns the corresponding serial number of seconds as an integer between 0 and 59.

=SECOND(

*serial_number*)**TIME**

Returns the corresponding serial number of time as a decimal between 0 and 0.99999999.

=TIME(

*hour*,*minute*,*second*)**TIMEVALUE**

Returns the serial number represented by text as time.

=TIMEVALUE(

*time_text*)**TODAY**

Returns the current date as a serial number. When entered in a cell, Excel formats the number as a date. There are no arguments for this function.

=TODAY()

**WEEKDAY**

Returns the corresponding day of the week (from 1 to 7) as a serial number.

=WEEKDAY(

*serial_number*,*return_type*)**WORKDAY**

Returns a number representing the date that is the number of days (specified by

*) before or after*__days__*. You can exclude dates with the*__start_date__*argument.*__holidays__
=WORKDAY(

*start_date*,*days*,*holidays*).**YEAR**

Returns the corresponding year as a serial number in the form of an integer from 19009999.

=YEAR(

*serial_number*)**YEARFRAC**

Returns the calculated fraction of the year represented by whole numbers between two dates.

=YEARFRAC(

*start_date*,*end_date*,*basis*)**DDE and External Data Functions**

**CALL**

Calls up the procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource.

Syntax 1, with register:

=CALL(

*register_ID*,*argument1*,...)
Syntax 2, used alone:

=CALL(

*module_text*,*procedure*,*type_text*,*argument1*,...)**REGISTER.ID**

Supplies the registered ID of the dynamic link library or code resource.

=REGISTER.ID(

*module_text*,*procedure*,*type_text*)**SQL.REQUEST**

Runs a query from a worksheet and connects an external data source.

=SQL.REQUEST(

*connection_string*,*output_ref*,*driver_prompt*,*query_text*,*col_names_logical*)**Engineering Functions**

*NOTE*
You must have the Analysis ToolPak installed and enabled to use (see) these functions.

**BESSELI**

Returns the Bessel function in modified form for imaginary arguments.

=BESSELI(

*x*,*n*)**BESSELJ**

Returns the actual Bessel function, where

*is the value at which to evaluate the function, and*__x__*is the order of the Bessel function.*__n__
=BESSELJ(

*x*,*n*)**BESSELK**

Returns the Bessel function in modified form for imaginary arguments.

=BESSELK(

*x*,*n*)**BESSELY**

Returns the Bessel function, also known as the Weber or Neumann function, where

*is the value at which to evaluate the function, and*__x__*is the order of the function.*__n__
=BESSELY(

*x*,*n*)**BIN2DEC**

Converts a binary number to decimal form.

=BIN2DEC(

*number*)**BIN2HEX**

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal.

=BIN2HEX(

*number*,*places*)**BIN2OCT**

Converts a binary number to octal.

=BIN2OCT(

*number*,*places*)**COMPLEX**

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x+yi or x+yj.

=COMPLEX(

*real_num*,*I_num*,*suffix*)**CONVERT**

Converts from one measurement system to another.

=CONVERT(

*number*,*from_unit*,*to_unit*)**DEC2BIN**

Converts decimal numbers to binary.

=DEC2BIN(

*number*,*places*)**DEC2HEX**

Converts decimal numbers to hexadecimal.

=DEC2HEX(

*number*,*places*)**DEC2OCT**

Converts decimal numbers to octal.

=DEC2OCT(

*number*,*places*)**DELTA**

Tests whether numbers or values are equal.

=DELTA(

*number1*,*number2*)**ERF**

Returns the integrated error function between

*and*__lower_limit__*.*__upper_limit__
=ERF(

*lower_limit*,*upper_limit*)**ERFC**

Returns a complementary ERF function integrated between

*x*and infinity, where*is the lower bound for integrating ERF.*__x__
=ERF(

*x*)**GESTEP**

Returns 1 if

*is greater than or equal to a specified*__number__*or threshold, otherwise returns 0.*__step__
=GESTEP(

*number*,*step*)**HEX2BIN**

Converts hexadecimal numbers to binary.

=HEX2BIN(

*number*,*places*)**HEX2DEC**

Converts hexadecimal numbers to decimal.

=HEX2DEC(

*number*)**HEX2OCT**

Converts hexadecimal numbers to octal.

=HEX2OCT(

*number*)**IMABS**

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format. The formula takes the square root of (x

^{2}+y^{2}).
=IMABS(

*inumber*)**IMAGINARY**

Returns the coefficient of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMAGINARY(

*inumber*)**IMARGUMENT**

Returns the theta argument and angle expressed in radians.

=IMARGUMENT(

*inumber*)**IMCONJUGATE**

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x+yi or x+yj text format.

=IMCONJUGATE(

*inumber*)**IMCOS**

Returns the cosine of a complex number x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMCOS(

*numbers*)**IMDIV**

Returns the quotient of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMDIV(

*number1*,*number2*)**IMEXP**

Returns the exponential of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMEXP(

*inumber*)**IMLN**

Returns the natural logarithm of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMLN(

*inumber*)**IMLOG10**

Returns the common logarithm (base 10) of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMLOG10(

*inumber*)**IMLOG2**

Returns the base 2 logarithm of complex numbers in x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMLOG2(

*inumber*)**IMPOWER**

Returns a complex number raised to a power in x+yi or x+yj text format.

=IMPOWER(

*inumber*,*number*)**IMPRODUCT**

Returns the product from 2 to 29 in complex numbers x+yi or x+yj text format.

=IMPRODUCT(

*inumber1*,*inumber2*,...)**IMREAL**

Returns real coefficients of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMREAL(

*inumber*)**IMSIN**

Returns the sine of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSIN(

*inumber*)**IMSQRT**

Returns the square root of complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSQRT(

*inumber*)**IMSUB**

Returns the difference of two complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSUB(

*inumber1*,*inumber2*)**IMSUM**

Returns the sum of two complex numbers x+yi or x+yj in text format.

=IMSUM(

*inumber1*,*inumber2*,...)**OCT2BIN**

Converts an octal number to binary.

=OCT2BIN(

*number*,*places*)**OCT2DEC**

Converts an octal number to decimal.

=OCT2DEC(

*number*)**OCT2HEX**

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.

=OCT2HEX(

*number*,*places*)**SQRTPI**

Returns the square root of a positive number multiplied by Pi. This value cannot be less than zero. (Also found under "Math and Trigonometry Functions.")

=SQRTPI(

*number**pi)**Financial Functions**

**ACCRINT**

Returns accrued interest for security that pays periodic interest.

=ACCRINT(

*issue*,*first_interest*,*settlement*,*rate*,*par*,*frequency*,*basis*)**ACCRINTM**

Returns accrued interest for security that pays interest at maturity.

=ACCRINTM(

*issue*,*maturity*,*rate*,*par*,*basis*)**AMORDEGRC**

Returns appreciation for each accounting period.

=AMORDEGRC(

*cost*,*date_purchased*,*first_period*,*salvage*,*period*,*rate*,*basis*)**AMORLINC**

Returns depreciation for each accounting period.

=AMORLINC(

*cost*,*date_purchased*,*first_period*,*salvage*,*period*,*rate*,*basis*)**COUPDAYBS**

Returns the number of days from start date of the coupon period to the settlement.

=COUPDAYBS(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*frequency*,*basis*)**COUPDAYS**

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that includes the settlement date.

=COUPDAYS(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*frequency*,*basis*)**COUPDAYSNC**

Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date.

=COUPDAYSNC(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*frequency*,*basis*)**COUPNCD**

Returns the number of the next coupon date after the settlement date.

=COUPNCD(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*frequency*,*basis*)**COUPNUM**

Returns the total number of coupons payable between the settlement and maturity date, rounded up to the nearest whole coupon.

=COUPNUM(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*frequency*,*basis*)**COUPPCD**

Returns the number of the previous coupon date before the settlement date.

=COUPPCD(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*frequency*,*basis*)**CUMIPMT**

Returns the cumulative interest on a loan between start and stop dates.

=CUMIPMT(

*rate*,*nper*,*pv*,*start_period*,*end_period*,*type*)**CUMPRINC**

Returns the cumulative principal amount between start and stop dates.

=CUMPRINC(

*rate*,*nper*,*pv*,*start_period*,*end_period*,*type*)**DB**

Returns the asset depreciation for a period using the fixed declining balance method.

=DB(

*cost*,*salvage*,*life*,*period*,*month*)**DDB**

Returns the asset depreciation for a specified period using the double-declining balance method, or another method you specify.

=DDB(

*cost*,*salvage*,*life*,*period*,*factor*)**DISC**

Returns the security discount rate.

=DISC(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*pr*,*redemption*,*basis*)**DOLLARDE**

Converts a fraction dollar price into a decimal dollar price.

=DOLLARDE(

*fractional_dollar*,*fraction*)**DOLLARFR**

Converts a decimal dollar price into a fraction dollar price.

=DOLLARFR(

*decimal_dollar*,*fraction*)**DURATION**

Returns the duration for an assumed par value of $100 using the Macauley method.

=DURATION(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*coupon*,*yield*,*frequency*,*basis*)**EFFECT**

Returns the effective interest rate annually, give the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year.

EFFECT(

*nominal_rate*,*npery*)**FV**

Returns the future value of periodic payments and a constant interest rate.

=FV(

*rate*,*nper*,*pmt*,*pv*,*type*)**FVSCHEDULE**

Returns the future value of the initial principal after applying several compound interest rates.

=FVSCHEDULE(

*principal*,*schedule*)**INTRATE**

Returns the interest rate of a fully invested security.

=INTRATE(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*investment*,*redemption*,*basis*)**IPMT**

Returns the interest payment for a period of time based on an investment with periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.

=IPMT(

*rate*,*per*,*nper*,*pv*,*fv*,*type*)**IRR**

Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by numbers in the form of values.

=IRR(

*values*,*guess*)**MDURATION**

Returns a modified duration of a security with an assumed par value of $100.

=MDURATION(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*coupon*,*yield*,*frequency*,*basis*)**MIRR**

Returns a modified internal rate of return for several periodic cash flows.

=MIRR(

*values*,*finance_rate*,*reinvest_rate*)**NOMINAL**

Returns the nominal annual interest rate given an effective rate and a number of compounding periods per year.

=NOMINAL(

*effective_rate*,*npery*)**NPER**

Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.

=NPER(

*rate*,*pmt*,*pv*,*fv*,*type*)**NPV**

Calculates the net present value of an investment with the discount rate and several future payments and income.

=NPV(

*rate*,*value1*,*value2*,...)**ODDFPRICE**

Returns the value of a security based on a per $100 face value and an odd first period.

=ODDFPRICE(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*issue*,*first_coupon*,*rate*,*yield*,*redemption*,*frequency*,*basis*)**ODDFYIELD**

Returns the security yield with an odd first period.

=ODDFYIELD(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*issue*,*first_coupon*,*rate*,*pr*,*redemption*,*frequency*,*basis*)**ODDLPRICE**

Returns the per $100 face value of a security having an odd last coupon period.

=ODDLPRICE(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*last_interest*,*rate*,*yield*,*redemption*,*frequency*,*basis*)**ODDLYIELD**

Returns the security yield that has an odd last period.

=ODDLYIELD(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*last_interest*,*rate*,*pr*,*redemption*,*frequency*,*basis*)**PMT**

Calculates the loan payment for a loan based on constant payments and constant interest rates.

=PMT(

*rate*,*nper*,*pv*,*fv*,*type*)**PPMT**

Returns the principal payment for a specific period of an investment based on periodic constant payments and a constant interest rate.

=PPMT(

*rate*,*per*,*nper*,*pv*,*fv*,*type*)**PRICE**

Returns the value of a security based on price per $100 face value and periodic payments.

=PRICE(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*rate*,*yield*,*redemption*,*frequency*,*basis*)**PRICEDISC**

Returns the value of a discounted security based on a price per $100 face value.

=PRICEDISC(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*discount*,*redemption*,*basis*)**PRICEMAT**

Returns the value of a security that pays interest at maturity and price per $100 face value.

=PRICEMAT(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*issue*,*rate*,*yield*,*basis*)**PV**

Based on an investment, returns the present value.

=PV(

*rate*,*nper*,*pmt*,fv,*type*)**RATE**

Returns per period the interest of an annuity.

=RATE(

*nper*,*pmt*,*pv*,*fv*,*type*,*guess*)**RECEIVED**

Based on a fully invested security, returns the amount received at maturity.

=RECEIVED(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*investment*,*discount*,*basis*)**SLN**

Based on one period, returns the straight-line depreciation on an asset.

=SLN(

*cost*,*salvage*,*life*)**SYD**

Based on a specified period, returns the sum-of-years-digits depreciation of an asset.

=SYD(

*cost*,*salvage*,*life*,*per*)**TBILLEQ**

For a treasury bill, returns the bond equivalent yield.

=TBILLEQ(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*discount*)**TBILLPRICE**

For a treasury bill, returns the price per $100 face value.

=TBILLPRICE(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*discount*)**TBILLYIELD**

For a treasury bill, returns the yield.

=TBILLYIELD(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*pr*)**VDB**

For a period you specify, returns the depreciation of an asset.

=VDB(

*cost*,*salvage*,*life*,*start_period*,*end_period*,*factor*,*no_switch*)**XIRR**

For a schedule of cash flows that are not necessarily periodic, returns the internal rate of return.

=XIRR(

*values*,*dates*,*guess*)**XNPV**

For a schedule of cash flows that are not necessarily periodic, returns the present value.

=XNPV(

*rate*,*values*,*dates*)**YIELD**

Based on a yield that pays periodic interest, returns the yield of the security.

=YIELD(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*rate*,*pr*,*redemption*,*frequency*,*basis*)**YIELDDISC**

For a discounted security, returns the annual yield.

=YIELDDISC(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*pr*,*redemption*,*basis*)**YIELDMAT**

Based on a security that pays interest at maturity, returns the annual yield.

=YIELDMAT(

*settlement*,*maturity*,*issue*,*rate*,*pr*,*basis*)**Information Functions**

**CELL**

Returns information about a cell's location, formatting, or contents in the upper-left cell in a reference.

=CELL(

*info_type*,*reference*)**COUNTBLANK**

Counts the number of empty cells in a specified range.

=COUNTBLANK(

*range*)**ERROR.TYPE**

Returns the corresponding number value associated with an error type in Microsoft Excel. Returns #N/A if no error exists.

=ERROR.TYPE(

*error_val*)**INFO**

Returns operating environment information.

=INFO(

*type_text*)**ISBLANK**

Returns TRUE if

*refers to an empty cell.*__value__
=ISBLANK(

*value*)**ISERR**

Returns TRUE if

*refers to any error value in Microsoft Excel except #NA.*__value__
=ISERR(

*value*)**ISERROR**

Returns TRUE if

*refers to any error value in Microsoft Excel.*__value__
=ISERROR(

*value*)**ISEVEN**

Returns TRUE or FALSE if the number is even or odd, TRUE being even and FALSE being odd.

=ISEVEN(

*number*)**ISLOGICAL**

Returns TRUE if the value is logical.

=ISLOGICAL(

*value*)**ISNA**

Returns TRUE if

*is associated with the error type #NA.*__value__
=ISNA(

*value*)**ISNONTEXT**

Returns TRUE if

*refers to any item that isn't text. Returns TRUE if value refers to a blank cell.*__value__
=ISNONTEXT(

*value*)**ISNUMBER**

Returns TRUE if

*refers to a number.*__value__
=ISNUMBER(

*value*)**ISODD**

Returns TRUE if

*is odd and FALSE if the*__number__*is even.*__number__
=ISODD(

*number*)**ISREF**

Returns TRUE if

*refers to a reference.*__value__
=ISREF(

*value*)**ISTEXT**

Returns TRUE if

*refers to text.*__value__
=ISTEXT(

*value*)**N**

Returns

*converted to a number.*__value__
=N(

*value*)**NA**

Returns the error value associated with #NA.

=NA()

**TYPE**

Returns the type of value, for example, number = 1, text = 2, logical value = 4, error value = 16, and array = 64. Use TYPE when the behavior of another function depends on the type of value in a particular cell.

=TYPE(

*value*)**Logical Functions**

**AND**

Returns TRUE if all arguments in the formula are true, and FALSE if any one argument is false.

=AND(

*logical1*,*logical2*,...)**FALSE**

Returns the value FALSE. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=FALSE()

**IF**

Returns a value if one condition is true, and returns another value if the condition is false.

=IF(

*logical_test*,*value_if_true*,*value_if_false*)**NOT**

Returns the reverse value of its arguments.

=NOT(

*logical*)**OR**

Returns TRUE if any one argument is true. Returns FALSE if all arguments are false.

=OR(

*logical1*,*logical2*,...)**TRUE**

Returns the value TRUE. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=TRUE()

**ADDRESS**

Given specified row and column numbers, creates a cell address as text.

=ADDRESS(

*row_num*,*column_num*,*abs_num*,*A1*,*sheet_text*)**AREAS**

Returns the number of areas in

*.*__reference__
=AREAS(

*reference*)**CHOOSE**

Returns the index number from a list of arguments.

=CHOOSE(

*index_num*,*value1*,*value2*,...)**COLUMN**

Based on a given reference, returns the column number.

=COLUMN(

*reference*)**COLUMNS**

Based on an array or reference, returns the number of columns.

=COLUMNS(

*array*)**HLOOKUP**

Searches for a specified value in an array or tables, based on the value found in the first row.

=HLOOKUP(

*lookup_value*,*table_array*,*row_index_number*,*range_lookup*)**HYPERLINK**

Creates a shortcut or jump that switches to another location within the workbook, or opens a document stored on a local drive, a network server, an intranet, or the Internet.

=HYPERLINK(

*link_location*,*cell_contents*)**INDEX (Array Form)**

Based on a table or array, returns the value of an element selected by the row number and column letter indexes.

=INDEX(

*array*,*row_num*,*column_num*)**INDEX (Reference Form)**

Based on the intersection of a particular row and column, returns the reference of the cell.

=INDEX(

*reference*,*row_num*,*column_num*,*area_num*)**INDIRECT**

Returns the reference based on a text string.

=INDIRECT(

*ref_text*,*A1*)**LOOKUP (Vector Form)**

Based on a range of one row or one column, returns the value from the same position in a second row or column.

=LOOKUP(

*lookup_value*,*lookup_vector*,*result_vector*)**LOOKUP (Array Form)**

Looks in the first row or column of an array, and returns the specified value from the same position in the last row or column of the array.

=LOOKUP(

*lookup_value*,*array*)**MATCH**

Returns the position of an item in an array that matches a specified value and order.

=MATCH(

*lookup_value*,*lookup_array*,*match_type*)**OFFSET**

Returns a reference to a range that is a specific number of rows and columns from a cell or range of cells.

=OFFSET(

*reference*,*rows*,*columns*,*height*,*width*)**ROW**

Based on a reference, returns the row number.

=ROW(

*reference*)**ROWS**

Based on a reference or array, returns the number of rows.

=ROWS(

*array*)**TRANSPOSE**

Returns a horizontal range of cells as vertical or vice versa.

=TRANSPOSE(

*array*)**VLOOKUP**

Looks for a value in the left most column of a table and returns a value from the column number you specify.

=VLOOKUP(

*lookup_value*,*table_array*,*column_index_num*,*range_lookup*)**ABS**

Returns the absolute value of

*.*__number__
=ABS(

*number*)**ACOS**

Returns the arcosine of

*. The arccosine is the angle whose cosine is*__number__*.*__number__
=ACOS(

*number*)**ACOSH**

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of

*.*__number__
=ACOSH(

*number*)**ASIN**

Returns the arcsine of

*.*__number__
=ASIN(

*number*)**ASINH**

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of

*.*__number__
=ASINH(

*number*)**ATAN**

Returns the arctangent of

*.*__number__
=ATAN(

*number*)**ATAN2**

Returns the arctangent of the specified x and y coordinates.

=ATAN2(

*x_num*,*y_num*)**ATANH**

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.

=ATANH(

*number*)**CEILING**

Returns

*rounded up to the nearest integer, or to the nearest multiple of significance (for example, to the nearest nickel).*__number__
=CEILING(

*number*,*significance*)**COMBIN**

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of items.

=COMBIN(

*number*,*number_chosen*)**COS**

Returns the cosine of a given angle.

=COS(

*number*)**COSH**

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of

*.*__number__
=COSH(

*number*)**COUNTIF**

Counts the number of cells in a specified range that meet the criteria you specify.

=COUNTIF(

*range*,*criteria*)**DEGREES**

Converts radians into degrees.

=DEGREES(

*angle*)**EVEN**

Returns

*rounded up to the nearest integer.*__number__
=EVEN(

*number*)**EXP**

Returns e raised to the power of

*.*__number__
=EXP(

*number*)**FACT**

Returns the factorial of

*.*__number__
=FACT(

*number*)**FACTDOUBLE**

Returns the double factorial of

*.*__number__
=FACTDOUBLE(

*number*)**FLOOR**

Rounds

*down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.*__number__
=FLOOR(

*number*,*significance*)**GCD**

Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.

=GCD(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**INT**

Rounds

*down to the nearest integer.*__number__
=INT(

*number*)**LCM**

Returns the least common multiple of integers.

=LCM(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**LN**

Returns the natural logarithm of a number.

=LN(

*number*)**LOG**

Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify.

=LOG(

*number*,*base*)**LOG10**

Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number.

=LOG10(

*number*)**MDETERM**

Returns the matrix determinant of an array.

=MDETERM(

*array*)**MINVERSE**

Returns the inverse matrix for the matrix stored in an array.

=MINVERSE(

*array*)**MMULT**

Returns the matrix product of two arrays.

=MMULT(

*array1*,*array2*)**MOD**

Returns the remainder after

*is divided by*__number__*.*__divisor__
=MOD(

*number*,*divisor*)**MROUND**

Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple.

=MROUND(

*number*,*multiple*)**MULTINOMIAL**

Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials.

=MULTINOMIAL(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**ODD**

Returns

*rounded to the nearest odd integer.*__number__
=ODD(

*number*)**PI**

Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant Pi, accurate to 15 digits. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=PI()

**POWER**

Returns the result of a number raised to a power.

=POWER(

*number*,*power*)**PRODUCT**

Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.

=PRODUCT(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**QUOTIENT**

Returns the integer portion of a division. Use this function to discard the remainder of a division.

=QUOTIENT(

*numerator*,*denominator*)**RADIANS**

Converts degrees to radians.

=RADIANS(

*angle*)**RAND**

Returns an evenly distributed number greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1. There are no arguments associated with this function.

=RAND()

**RANDBETWEEN**

Returns a random number between the numbers you specify.

=RANDBETWEEN(

*bottom*,*top*)**ROMAN**

Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text.

=ROMAN(

*number*,*form*)**ROUND**

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.

=ROUND(

*number*,*num_digits*)**ROUNDDOWN**

Rounds a number down toward 0.

=ROUNDDOWN(

*number*,*num_digits*)**ROUNDUP**

Rounds a number up away from 0.

=ROUNDUP(

*number*,*num_digits*)**SERIESSUM**

Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula.

=SERIESSUM(

*x*,*n*,*m*,*coefficients*)**SIGN**

Determines the sign (positive or negative) of

*.*__number__
=SIGN(

*number*)**SIN**

Returns the sine of the given angle.

=SIN(

*number*)**SINH**

Returns the hyperbolic sine of

*.*__number__
=SINH(

*number*)**SQRT**

Returns the positive square root of

*.*__number__
=SQRT(

*number*)**SQRTPI**

Returns the square root of (

**pi).*__number__
=SQRTPI(

*number*)**SUBTOTAL**

Returns a subtotal from a list or database.

=SUBTOTAL(

*function_num*,*ref1*,*ref2*,...)**SUM**

Adds the numbers in a range of cells.

=Sum(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**SUMIF**

Adds the cells specified by

*.*__criteria__
=SUMIF(

*range*,*criteria*,*sum_range*)**SUMPRODUCT**

Multiplies corresponding components in the given array, and returns the sum of those products.

=SUMPRODUCT(

*array1*,*array2*,*array3*,...)**SUMSQ**

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.

=SUMSQ(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**SUMX2MY2**

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.

=SUMX2MY2(

*array_x*,*array_y*)**SUMX2PY2**

Returns the sum of the sum of squares in corresponding values in two arrays.

=SUMX2PY2(

*array_x*,*array_y*)**SUMXMY2**

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.

=SUMXMY2(

*array_x*,*array_y*)**TAN**

Returns the tangent of the given angle.

=TAN(

*number*)**TANH**

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of

*.*__number__
=TANH(

*number*)**TRUNC**

Truncates

*to an integer, removing the fractional part of the number. Note that this function does not round*__number__*.*__number__
=TRUNC(

*number*,*num_digits*)**AVEDEV**

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean.

=AVEDEV(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**AVERAGE**

Returns the average of the arguments.

=AVERAGE(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**AVERAGEA**

Calculates the average of the values in the list of arguments.

=AVERAGEA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**BETADIST**

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.

=BETADIST(

*x*,*alpha*,*beta*,*A*,*B*)**BETAINV**

Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function.

=BETAINV(

*probability*,*alpha*,*beta*,*A*,*B*)**BINOMDIST**

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

=BINOMDIST(

*number_s*,*trials*,*probability_s*,*cumulative*)**CHIDIST**

Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

=CHIDIST(

*x*,*degrees_freedom*)**CHINV**

Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

=CHINV(

*probability*,*degrees_freedom*)**CHITEST**

Returns the test for independence.

=CHITEST(

*actual_range*,*expected_range*)**CONFIDENCE**

Returns the confidence interval - the range on either side of a sample mean - for the population mean.

=CONFIDENCE(

*alpha*,*standard_dev*,*size*)**CORREL**

Returns the correlation coefficient of

*and*__array1__*cell ranges.*__array2__
=CORREL(

*array1*,*array2*)**COUNT**

Counts the number of cells that contain numbers within the list of arguments.

=COUNT(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**COUNTA**

Counts the number of cells that are not empty within the list of arguments.

=COUNTA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**COVAR**

Returns covariance, the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair.

=COVAR(

*array1*,*array2*)**CRITBINOM**

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value.

=CRITBINOM(

*trials*,*probability_s*,*alpha*)**DEVSQ**

Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean.

=DEVSQ(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**EXPONDIST**

Returns the exponential distribution.

=EXPONDIST(

*x*,*lambda*,*cumulative*)**FDIST**

Returns the F probability distribution.

=FDIST(

*x*,*degrees_freedom1*,*degrees_freedom2*)**FINV**

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.

=FINV(

*probability*,*degrees_freedom1*,*degrees_freedom2*)**FISHER**

Returns the Fisher transformation at

*.*__x__
=FISHER(

*x*)**FISHERINV**

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.

=FISHERINV(

*y*)**FORECAST**

Calculates or predicts a future value by using existing values.

=FORECAST(

*x*,*known_y's*,*known_x's*)**FREQUENCY**

Calculates how often values occur within a range of values, and then returns a vertical array of numbers. This function returns an array of values and therefore must be entered as an array formula (using Ctrl+Shift+Enter).

=FREQUENCY(

*data_array*,*bins_array*)**FTEST**

Returns the result of an Ftest.

=FTEST(

*array1*,*array2*)**GAMMADIST**

Returns the gamma distribution.

=GAMMADIST(

*x*,alpha,*beta*,*cumulative*)**GAMMAINV**

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.

=GAMMAINV(

*probability*,*alpha*,*beta*)**GAMMALN**

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function.

=GAMMALN(

*x*)**GEOMEAN**

Returns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data.

=GEOMEAN(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**GROWTH**

Calculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data.

=GROWTH(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*,*new_x's*,*const*)**HARMEAN**

Returns the harmonic mean of a data set.

=HARMEAN(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**HYPGEOMDIST**

Returns the hypergeometric distribution.

=HYPERGEOMDIST(

*sample_s*,*number_sample*,*population_s*,*number_population*)**INTERCEPT**

Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using existing x-values and y-values.

=INTERCEPT(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*)**KURT**

Returns the Kurtosis of a data set.

=KURT(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**LARGE**

Returns the

*k*-th largest value in a data set.
=LARGE(

*array*,*k*)**LINEST**

Calculates the statistics for a line by using the "least squares" method to calculate a straight line that best fits your data, and returns an array that describes the line.

=LINEST(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*,*const*,*stats*)**LOGEST**

In regression analysis, calculates an exponential curve that fits your data and returns an array of values that describes the curve.

=LOGEST(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*,*const*,*stats*)**LOGINV**

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of

*x*, wherein (*x*) is normally distributed with parameters*and*__mean__*.*__standard_dev__
=LOGINV(

*probability*,*mean*,*standard_dev*)**LOGNORMDIST**

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x, wherein (x) is normally distributed with parameters

*and*__mean__*.*__standard_dev__
=LOGNORMDIST(

*x*,*mean*,*standard_dev*)**MAX**

Returns the largest value in a set of values.

=MAX(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**MAXA**

Returns the largest value in a list of arguments.

=MAXA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**MEDIAN**

Returns the median of a given set numbers.

=MEDIAN(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**MIN**

Returns the smallest number in a set of values. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=MIN(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**MINA**

Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments including text and logical values such as "No Grade", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=MINA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**MODE**

Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value in an array or range of data.

=MODE(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**NEGBINOMDIST**

Returns the negative binomial distribution.

=NEGBINOMDIST(

*number_f*,*number_s*,*probability_s*)**NORMDIST**

Returns the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.

=NORMDIST(

*x*,*mean*,*standard_dev*,*cumulative*)**NORMINV**

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation.

=NORMINV(

*probability*,*mean*,*standard_dev*)**NORMSDIST**

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function.

=NORMSDIST(

*z*)**NORMSINV**

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.

=NORMSINV(

*probability*)**PEARSON**

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, r, a dimensionless index ranges from -1.0 to 1.0 inclusive and reflects the extent of a linear relationship between two data sets.

=PEARSON(

*array1*,*array2*)**PERCENTILE**

Returns the

*k*-th percentile of values in a range.
=PERCENTILE(

*array*,*k*)**PERCENTRANK**

Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage of the data set.

=PERCENTRANK(

*array*,*x*,*significance*)**PERMUT**

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from

*objects.*__number__
=PERMUT(

*number*,*number_chosen*)**POISSON**

Returns the Poisson distribution.

=POISSON(

*x*,*mean*,*cumulative*)**PROB**

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two specified limits.

=PROB(

*x_range*,*prob_range*,*lower_limit*,*upper_limit*)**QUARTILE**

Returns the quartile of a data set.

=QUARTILE(

*array*,*quart*)**RANK**

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.

=RANK(

*number*,*ref*,*order*)**RSQ**

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in

*and*__known_y's__*.*__known_x's__
=RSQ(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*)**SKEW**

Returns the skewness of a distribution.

=SKEW(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**SLOPE**

Returns the slope of the regression line through data points in

*and*__known_y's__*.*__known_x's__
=SLOPE(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*)**SMALL**

Returns the

*k*-th smallest value in a data set.
=SMALL(

*array*,*k*)**STANDARDIZE**

Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by

*and*__mean__*.*__standard_dev__
=STANDARDIZE(

*x*,*mean*,*standard_dev*)**STDEV**

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=STDEV(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**STDEVA**

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=STDEVA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**STDEVP**

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=STDEVP(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**STDEVPA**

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=STDEVPA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**STEYX**

Returns the standard error of the predicted y value for each

*x*in the regression.
=STEYX(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*)**TDIST**

Returns the student's t-distribution.

TDIST(

*x*,*degrees_freedom*,*tails*)**TINV**

Returns the inverse of the student's t-distribution for the specified degrees of freedom.

=TINV(

*probability*,*degrees_freedom*)**TREND**

Returns values along a linear trend.

=TREND(

*known_y's*,*known_x's*,*new_x's*,*const*)**TRIMMEAN**

Returns the mean of the interior of a data set.

=TRIMMEAN(

*array*,*percent*)**TTEST**

Returns the probability associated with the student's t-test.

=TTEST(

*array1*,*array2*,*tails*,*type*)**VAR**

Estimates variance based on a sample, with from 1 to 30 arguments.

=VAR(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**VARA**

Estimates variance based on a sample including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=VARA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**VARP**

Calculates variance based on the entire population. Nonnumeric values are ignored.

=VARP(

*number1*,*number2*,...)**VARPA**

Calculates variance based on the entire population. including text and logical values such as "None", TRUE, and FALSE. TRUE evaluates to 1. All other nonnumeric values evaluate to 0.

=VARPA(

*value1*,*value2*,...)**WEIBULL**

Returns the Weibull distribution.

=WEIBULL(

*x*,*alpha*,*beta*,*cumulative*)**ZTEST**

Returns the two-tailed P-value of a z-test.

=ZTEST(

*array*,*x*,*sigma*)**CHAR**

Returns the character specified by a number.

=CHAR(

*number*)**CLEAN**

Removes all nonprintable characters from text.

=CLEAN(

*text*)**CODE**

Returns a numeric code from the first character in a text string.

=CODE(

*text*)**CONCATENATE**

Joins several text strings into one text string.

=CONCATENATE(

*text1*,*text2*,...)**DOLLAR**

Converts a number to text using Currency format, with the decimals rounded to the specified place. The format used is $#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00).

=DOLLAR(

*number*,*decimals*)**EXACT**

Compares two text strings and returns TRUE if they're exactly the same, and FALSE otherwise. EXACT is case sensitive.

=EXACT(

*text1*,*text2*)**FIND**

Finds one text string with another text string, and returns the number of the starting position of

*, from the leftmost character of*__find_text__*. FIND is case sensitive and cannot include wildcard characters.*__within_text__
=FIND(

*find_text*,*within_text*,*start_num*)**FINDB**

Finds one text string with another text string, and returns the number of the starting position of

*, from the leftmost character of*__find_text__*. FINDB is case sensitive and cannot include wildcard characters. This function is for use with double-byte characters.*__within_text__
=FINDB(

*find_text*,*within_text*,*start_num*)**FIXED**

Rounds a number to a specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text.

=FIXED(

*number*,*decimals*,*no_commas*)**LEFT**

Returns the first character or characters in a text string.

=LEFT(

*text*,*num_char*)**LEN**

Returns the number of characters in a text string.

=LEN(

*text*)**LOWER**

Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase.

=LOWER(

*text*)**MID**

Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify.

=MID(

*text*,*start_num*,*num_char*)**PROPER**

Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter.

=PROPER(

*text*)**REPLACE**

Replaces part of a text string with a different text string based on the number of characters you specify.

=REPLACE(

*old_text*,*start_num*,*num_chars*,*new_text*)**REPLACEB**

Replaces part of a text string with a different text string, based on the number of bytes you specify.

=REPLACEB(

*old_text*,*start_num*,*num_bytes*,*new_text*)**REPT**

Repeats

*text*a given number of times.
=REPT(

*text*,*number_times*)**RIGHT**

Returns the last character or characters in a text string.

=RIGHT(

*text*,*num_chars*)**SEARCH**

Returns the number of the character at which a specific character or text string is first found, reading from left to right. SEARCH is not case sensitive and can include wildcard characters.

=SEARCH(

*find_text*,*within_text*,*start_num*)**SEARCHB**

Returns the number of the double-byte character at which a specific character or text string is first found, reading from left to right. SEARCHB is not case sensitive and can include wildcard characters.

=SEARCHB(

*find_text*,*within_text*,*start_num*)**SUBSTITUTE**

Substitutes

*for*__new_text__*in a text string.*__old_text__
=SUBSTITUTE(

*text*,*old_text*,*new_text*,*instance_num*)**T**

Returns the text referred to by

*.*__value__
=T(

*value*)**TEXT**

Converts a value to text in a specific number format.

=TEXT(

*value*,*format_text*)**TRIM**

Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words.

=TRIM(

*text*)**UPPER**

Converts text to uppercase.

=UPPER(

*text*)**VALUE**

Converts a text string that represents a number to a number.

=VALUE(

*text*)
** I Shall try in future Important functions are discus in my Home page with Example .